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British Gas GRC R 1019 (2)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 2
BFETS Phase 2
A programme of jet fire tests was undertaken by British Gas over a two-month period, between May and June 1995, under contract to the Steel Construction Institute as part of the industry sponsored ‘Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures’. An overview report has been prepared which describes the measurement techniques and equipment used. The overview report also contains a summary of the data from each of the tests. In addition, an individual data report has been prepared for each test. This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 2.
Test 2 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by 5 kg/s crude oil, released horizontally from a circular hole at the end of a pipeline at an absolute static pressure of 7 bar. Preferred weather conditions were dry, with a nominally co-flowing wind (i.e. blowing from behind the release, within 30° either side) and a horizontal wind speed in the range 3 to 8m/s.
The conditions during Test 2 were close to the preferred conditions specified. The crude oil release hole diameter required to achieve the pressures and flow rates specified was identified prior to the test, and was 18.0 mm. The crude oil flow rate achieved m the test was 5.0 kg/s, released at an absolute static pressure of 7.1 bar. Weather conditions were dry, with a time-averaged wind speed (measured 41 m nominally cross-stream of the crude oil release axis, at a height of 6.9 m above the crude oil release point) of 2.5 m/s, from a time-averaged direction 4° off the crude oil release axis.
In the test, a natural gas pilot was used to stabilise the crude oil flame close to the release point. The natural gas pilot was ignited first, before the crude oil was released. The released oil followed a trajectory which fell significantly below the release axis, and the flame interacted intermittently with the ground, although negligible liquid drop-out to the ground was observed either during or following the test. The flame generated large quantities of thick, black smoke which obscured much of the flame. The visible flame extended approximately 23 m in a horizontal direction. The flame was luminous and radiative, with a time-averaged maximum flame surface emissive power of 203 kW/m2.
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