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BFETS Phase 2

Blast and Fire Engineering for Topside Structures Phase 2

Project Duration: 1994 - 1998

PROJECT SUMMARY

The Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures is one of the largest research projects undertaken following the Piper Alpha disaster to address key issues relating to the characterisation and mitigation of offshore hydrocarbon explosions and fires.

Phase 2 of the project commenced in January 1994 and was completed in January 1998. It was sponsored by 10 oil and gas companies (operating in both the UK and Norwegian Continental Shelves) and the UK Health and Safety Executive. The project cost was £4,400,000.

The first objective of Phase 2 was to provide specific information about the characteristics of hydrocarbon explosions and fires and means of mitigating these hazards. The second objective was to generate accurate information and data for use in evaluating and improving the accuracy of fire and explosion models.

The experiments in Phase 2 were carried out at large-scale to generate that is representative of offshore scenarios and to study the influence of scale on explosion and fire characteristics; all previous research in this field had been carried out at small and medium scale.

The project included the following work packages:

  • Unconfined jet fire test programme;
  • Confined jet and pool fire test programme;
  • Explosion test programme;
  • Fire model evaluation exercise;
  • Explosion model evaluation exercise.
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Available Documents

SCI P253
Blast and Fire Engineering for Topside Structures Phase 2 - Final Summary Report

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1998

This volume is the Final Summary Report on the Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures Phase 2. The project's ultimate objective was to improve the industry's confidence in its safety systems with respect to hydrocarbon explosions and fires. This has been done by generating large scale data on the loading associated with hydrocarbon fires and explosions, and…

BG R 1579
Final Report on the Explosion Test Programme - Main Report

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1997

This is the Main Report of the Final Report on the Explosion Test Programme carried out as part of Phase 2 of the Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures.

In May 1990, the Steel Construction Institute (SCI) launched the industry sponsored 'Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures'. Phase 1 of this project was completed in 1992 and established…

SCI RT668
Fire Model Evaluation Exercise - Final Report

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1997

In May 1990, the Steel Construction Institute (SCI) launched the industry sponsored ‘Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures’. Phase 1 of this project identified that there were areas of major uncertainty in the design process, especially in determining the loadings that might be generated by a fire or explosion within a topside structure. Therefore, Phase 2…

SINTEF STF25 F95028
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Final Report

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1997

SINTEF Energy - Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory (NBL) has carried out a series of fire tests with confined jet and pool fires, according to the test programme F3 of Blast and Fire Engineering for Topside structures. This is the main report presenting the findings from the final test programme of 15 jet fires and 7 pool fires, in two compartment sizes, 135 m3 and 415 m3.

The…

British Gas GRC R 1019
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Summary Report for Jet Fire Tests

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1997

In May 1990, the Steel Construction Institute (SCI) launched the industry sponsored ‘Blast and Fire Engineering Project for Topside Structures’. As part of Phase 2 of this project, a programme of large scale experiments to study horizontal jet fires has been carried out by BG Research and Technology (R&T) under contract GRC/2190/105 to the SCI. The aim of these tests was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95007
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF1A

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1997

Jet fire test JF1A is representing a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 135 m3enclosure. The general fire behaviour, such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF1A was to reproduce a test from an earlier experimental…

SINTEF STF25 F95031
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF23

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1997

Jet fire test JF23 is representing a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 135 m3enclosure. The general fire behaviour, such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF23 was to reproduce a test from an earlier experimental…

SINTEF STF25 F95023
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF12

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF12 represents a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 415 m3enclosure with a 5.5 x 2.81 m opening at one end. The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF12 was to investigate the…

SINTEF STF25 F95025
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF15

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF15 represents a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 415 m3enclosure with a split opening at one end. The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF15 was to investigate the…

SINTEF STF25 F95030
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF22

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF22 represents a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at high level in a 415 m3enclosure with a 3.45 x 2.81 m vent opening at one end. The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF22 was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95014
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF6

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The jet fire test JF6 represents a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery). The main purpose of this test was to compare a well-ventilated fire with close-to-stoichiometric fires.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry, the temperature field and heat load from a naturally ventilated fire was studied in the test programme. This test, JF6…

SINTEF STF25 F95027
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF13

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF13 represents a 24 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on a water bed in a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of pool fire test PF13 was to investigate the differences between…

SINTEF STF25 F95026
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF14

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF14 represents a 24 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on a water bed in a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of test PF14 was to investigate the variation in fire behaviour by…

SINTEF STF25 F95008
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF1B

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF1B is representing a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 135 m3enclosure. The general fire behaviour, such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF1B was to reproduce a test from an earlier experimental…

SINTEF STF25 F95018
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF9SD

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The jet fire test JF9SD represents a horizontal release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) pointing inwards from the ventilation opening, into a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of jet fire test JF9SD was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95010
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF2A

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF2A represents a 6 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on a water bed in a 135 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of PF2A was to investigate the difference in burning rate for fuel…

SINTEF STF25 F95011
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF3

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF3 represents a 6 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on steel substrate in a 135 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of PF3 was to investigate the difference in burning rate for…

SINTEF STF25 F95024
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF12SD

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF12SD represents a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 415 m3enclosure with a 5.5 x 2.81 m opening at one end. The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of jet fire test JF12SD was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95013
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF5

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The jet fire test JF5 was carried out to study the characteristics like the temperature field and heat load from a naturally ventilated fire using a fuel fraction from an oil refinery (Condensate). Similar tests with condensate (JF8) and gaseous propane (JF4) as fuel have been carried out in the test programme, as well as a similar test in smaller scale (135 m3enclosure).…

SINTEF STF25 F95012
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF4

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF4 is representing a vertical release of pressurized gaseous propane at low level in a 415 m3 enclosure. The general fire behaviour depending on enclosure geometry, ventilation arrangement and fuel release parameters is also studied in the test programme.

The main purpose of jet fire test JF4 was to have a reference experiment with gaseous propane as fuel in a…

SINTEF STF25 F95016
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF8

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

Jet fire test JF8 represents a vertical release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) at low level in a 415 m3enclosure with a 3.45 x 2.81 m opening at one end. The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from naturally ventilated fires was studied. The main purpose of test JF8 was to investigate the…

SINTEF STF25 F95017
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF9

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The jet fire test JF9 represents a horizontal release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) pointing inwards from the ventilation opening, into a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of jet fire test JF9 was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95019
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF9B

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The jet fire test JF9B represents a horizontal release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) pointing inwards from the ventilation opening, into a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of jet fire test JF9B was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95015
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test JF9C

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The jet fire test JF9C represents a horizontal release of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) pointing inwards from the ventilation opening, into a 415 m3enclosure. The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of jet fire test JF9C was to…

SINTEF STF25 F95020
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF10

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF10 represents a 24 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on a water bed in a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of pool fire test PF10 was to compare the difference between pool…

SINTEF STF25 F95021
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF11

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF11 represents a 24 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on a water bed in a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of pool fire test PF11 was to investigate the differences between…

SINTEF STF25 F95022
Test Programme F3 - Confined Jet and Pool Fires - Technical Report for Test PF11SD

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

The pool fire test PF11SD represents a 24 m2 pool fire of condensate (a liquid fraction from an oil refinery) on a water bed in a 415 m3 enclosure.

The general fire behaviour such as flame geometry and characteristics, temperature field and heat load from this naturally ventilated fire was studied. The main purpose of pool fire test PF11SD was to investigate the deluge effect on…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (1)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 1

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 1.

Test 1 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by 5 kg/s crude oil, released horizontally from a circular hole at the end of a pipeline at an absolute static pressure of 20 bar. Preferred weather conditions were dry, with a nominally co-flowing wind (i.e. blowing from behind the…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (10)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 10

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 10.

Test 10 was specified to be an impacting flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 2 kg/s natural gas and 3 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 2:3, or 0.67), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (11)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 11

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 11.

Test 11 was specified to be an impacting flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 1 kg/s natural gas and 4 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 1:4, or 0.25), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (12)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 12

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 12.

Test 12 was specified to be an impacting flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 2 kg/s natural gas and 3 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 2:3, or 0.67), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (2)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 2

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 2.

Test 2 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by 5 kg/s crude oil, released horizontally from a circular hole at the end of a pipeline at an absolute static pressure of 7 bar. Preferred weather conditions were dry, with a nominally co-flowing wind (i.e. blowing from behind the…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (3)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 3

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 3.

Test 3 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 1 kg/s natural gas and 4 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 1:4, or 0.25), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static pressures…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (4)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 4

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 4.

Test 4 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 1 kg/s natural gas and 4 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 1:4, or 0.25), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static pressures…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (5)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 5

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 5.

Test 5 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 2 kg/s natural gas and 3 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 2:3, or 0.67), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static pressures…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (6)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 6

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 6.

Test 6 was specified to be a free flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 2 kg/s natural gas and 3 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 2:3, or 0.67), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static pressures…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (7)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 7

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 7.

Test 7 was specified to be an impacting flame experiment, fuelled by 5 kg/s crude oil released horizontally from a circular hole at an absolute static pressure of 20 bar, and impacting normally on a horizontal 0.9 m diameter instrumented pipe target located such that its axis was a distance of 9…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (8)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 8

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 8.

Test 8 was specified to be an impacting flame experiment, fuelled by 5 kg/s crude oil released horizontally from a circular hole at an absolute static pressure of 20 bar, and impacting normally on a horizontal 0.9 m diameter instrumented pipe target located such that its axis was a distance of 15…

British Gas GRC R 1019 (9)
Horizontal Jet Fires of Oil and Gas - Data Report for Jet Fire Test 9

BFETS Phase 2
Published in 1996

This data report contains the detailed results of measurements taken during Test 9.

Test 9 was specified to be an impacting flame experiment, fuelled by a mixture of 1 kg/s natural gas and 4 kg/s crude oil (i.e. a gas:oil mass ratio of 1:4, or 0.25), released horizontally from circular holes at the ends of parallel, adjacent pipelines at absolute stagnation and static pressures…

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